Lycopene is a pigment mainly responsible for the red color from red fruits of ripe tomatoes and tomatoes products. It has attracted attention because of its natural and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it lacks the activity of pro vitamin A, lycopene exhibits a constant physical elimination rate with singlet oxygen nearly twice as much as β-carotene. This makes its presence in the food of the great seed. Lycopene in fresh tomatoes fruits occurs basically in the whole process. The main causes of the destruction of tomatoes during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all isomers into co-isomers due to the added energy and results in a stable, rich channel. Determining the level of lycopene isomerization during the preparation will provide an estimate of the potential health benefits of a tomato-based diet. Hot reactions (blurring, backlash, and freezing processes) often cause a certain loss of lycopene in a tomato-based diet. Heat induces isomerization of all transfer forms to CIS. The cos-isomers increase with temperature and time of operation. Generally, aqueous and powdered tomatoes have strong lycopene content unless carefully processed and immediately placed in a hermetically sealed and inert state for storage. The large increase in is-isomers with simultaneous decrease of the transverse isomers can be seen in the tomato samples of water using various dehydration methods. Frozen and heat-fed foods show good lycopene stability throughout their normal shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is much higher than that of most of the isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in tomato-based products is higher than new untreated tomatoes. The composition and composition of the diet also contributes to the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato matrix. More details on lycopene bioavailability, however, are needed. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of lycopene remain poorly understood. Consumer demand for healthy food products offers the opportunity to develop lycopene-rich foods as new active foods, as well as food grade and pharmaceutical grade lycopene as new food products. The industrial scale, the process of purifying lycopene and the self-cleaning environment with minimal loss of bioactivities are highly desirable in the food, feed, pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries. High quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will provide potential benefits to the food industry.
Tomatoes (Lycopersicon secretum), often described as a vegetable, are adapted to a variety of culinary uses whether in fresh salad form or as a puree in gravies, stew, and soups of various world cultures. Tomatoes contain 5.7% dry matter; low concentration of vitamin C, pro vitamin A, and minerals (especially potassium) compared to other important fruit types.
Lycopene, products made from tomatoes and other fruits. It is one of the most potent antioxidants among edible carotenoids. Eating tomato and tomato products containing lycopene has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. Serum and lycopene levels have been found to be associated with an increased incidence of many types of cancer, including breast cancer and prostate cancer. In this article we show the possible ways to synthesize lycopene and discuss current understanding of its role in human health and disease prevention.
Role of Lycopene in the treatment of Cancer:
Lycopene has a role in reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Preliminary studies show that lycopene works in unique, potent ways to cooperate in reducing the proliferation of normal and cancerous epithelial cells, reducing DNA damage, and improving oxidative stress. Epidemiologic data often support an association between eating tomato-based foods and lower risk of prostate cancer. The unchanged association may be caused by lycopene although this may not be released yet. Even two weekly distributions of a rich source of bioavailable lycopene, such as tomato sauce, were associated with a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer. While the opportunity is one of the most anticipated to respond to consistent encounters with tomato-based products, which complement the other variables, especially foods, they cannot be categorized as another explanation. Of particular concern is that the rich diet of lycopene serves as an indicator of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits that can reduce the risk of prostate cancer through other phytochemicals. An important historical study is provided by β-carotene, in which quantitative evidence based on questionnaires and blood levels have suggested benefit for various cancers, particularly lung cancer, but recent β-carotene supplementation trials have not confirmed this benefit. In retrospect it seems difficult, if not impossible to separate the β-carotene intake from that of the general pattern of diet high in fruits and vegetables. In contrast, this is not the case with lycopene. Other carotenoids in the prostate tissue are highly correlated, but lycopene content does not appear to be related to the expression of other carotenoids. In a Health Professionals Follow-Up study and a Seventh – day Adventist study, tomato-based products and lycopene were associated with lower prostate cancer risk, but fruits and vegetables, individually and collectively, and other carotenoids were not associated with Prostate cancer risk. These results are in line with findings from other studies that vegetarian consumption and normal fruit size are not associated with prostate cancer incidence. It is very difficult to distinguish certain effects of lycopene from those of other compounds that can be beneficial to tomatoes; however, based on the similarity of the effects of plasma lycopene precursors with the risk of cervical cancer risk, a complex gene may be expected to have similar bioavailability characteristics such as lycopene. Therefore, in relation to practical recommendations, the information available is interpreted cautiously as supporting the potential benefit of increased use of tomatoes and tomato-based products. Presenting a specific effect on lycopene or a specific soma of this carotenoid may require a lot of research. More research by epidemiologists, clinical researchers, cancer scientists and nutrition scientists is underway, and answers to many questions about tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer should already be in place.
The natural activities of carotenoids such as β-carotene are generally related to their ability to produce Vitamin A within the body. Since lycopene lacks the structure of the β-ionone ring, it cannot formulate the effects of Vitamin A. Its in humans and therefore was described as a non-Vitamin A.
Among non-functional mechanisms, the anticarcinogenic effects of lycopene have been suggested to be caused by the regulation of gap-junction interaction in mouse gray membrane fibroblast cell. Lycopene is defined as hypothesized to suppress carcinogen-induced phosphorylation regulatory proteins in the G0 – G1 cell cycle phase. Astorg and colleagues suggested that the mutation of the lycopene-inducing liver enzyme, cytochrome P450 2E1, was a defense mechanism against carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions. Preliminary evidence in vitro also reveals that lycopene suppresses cellular growth initiated by growth factors such as insulin, which are potent ingredients, in various cancer cell lines. The regulation of extrathymic differentiation T-cell was suggested to be a mechanism to suppress mammary cell growth by lycopene treatment in retired SHN mice. Lycopene has also been shown to function as a hypocholesterolemic agent by inhibiting HMG – CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A) reductase.lycopene modulated by carcinogenesis and atherogeneis by protecting cellular biomolecules, including lipids , lipids, lipids, lipids, lipids, lipids, proteins and DNA. In healthy human subjects, lycopene- or tomato-free diet resulted in lycopene loss and increased lipid oxidation, while supplementation with lycopene for 1 week increased serum lycopene levels and decreased oxidation levels of lipids, proteins, lipoproteins and DNA. Patients for Prostate cancer were found to have low lycopene levels and high levels of oxidation of serum lipids and proteins.
Increasing oxidative pressure has impacted on chronic disease patients. Foods made from tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene have been associated with a reduced risk of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in many studies. Tomatoes account for 85% of the use of lycopene in the American diet, and are an important part of the Mediterranean diet, best known for its cardiovascular health and adverse effects. Folate, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Most of these tomato products can work with the owner to provide the benefit of protection against oxidative stress, through various strategies including antioxidant action. Although 90% of lycopene in food sources is found in the gland, in the whole composition, human tissues (especially the liver, adrenal, adipose tissue, testes and the prostate) contain mainly cis-isomers.
Cellular and molecular studies have shown that lycopene is one of the most potent antioxidants and was suggested to protect carcinogenesis and atherogenesis by protecting key biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids and low-density lipoproteins.
The beneficial effects of high intake of tomatoes and tomato products on the risk of certain chronic diseases have been highlighted in numerous epidemiological studies, suggesting that lycopene (a major carotenoid in tomatoes) is a micronutrient with significant health benefits. Over the last few years, we have gained more insights into the metabolism of lycopene and the environmental effects of lycopene outgrowth. In particular, the formation and study of β-carotene oxygenase has shown that this enzyme can affect the signaling activity of pro vitamin and non-pro vitamin A. This raised the important question whether the effect of lycopene on various cellular functions and the signaling pathways of action are a result of actions specific lycopene or its derivatives. Several reports, including ours, support the view that the biological functions of lycopene can be regulated by apo-10′-lycopenoids. Further research is clearly needed to identify and characterize the metabolites of additional lycopene and their biological functions, which will provide insights into the processes that underlie the effects of lycopene on humans.
The most common carotenoids in human plasma include β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene. These 6 major carotenoids account for 7070% of all carotenoids identified in human plasma and tissues. Great efforts have been made to identify its natural and gymnastic properties. Related to β-carotene, while the metabolism of β-carotene has been widely studied, its absorption, transport, metabolism, and lycopene functions remain unexplained. Over the last few years, we have gained more insight into the biological effects of lycopene and its availability, apo-lycopenoids, lycopene derivatives, formed when the carbon artery is shortened. Recordings of lycopene in a long string of double bonds by autooxidation, radical-mediated oxidation, and singlet oxygen are documented; however the value of such products remains poorly understood. Recently, the observation and study of β-carotene 9 ′, 10′-oxygenase has shown that this enzyme may affect the basic decomposition of both pro vitamin and non-pro vitamin A carotenoids to form apo-10′-carotenoids including apo -10′- lycopenoates from lycopene. Importantly, these metabolites have specific and nonspecific biological properties in vitro and in vivo systems. In this review, it will be highlighted the metabolic mechanism of lycopene and the possible biological actions of lycopene metabolites.
As access to information becomes easier forever, patients are more aware and educated about the subject than ever before. The role of antioxidants including carotenoids in all this has been a matter of great interest for some time. Lycopene, a carotenoid that gives tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables its red color, has been particularly enthusiastic about its role in liver cancer.
In the first half of the twentieth century the public became more educated about health problems. This comes with increased awareness of the incidence of prostate cancer in humans and, consequently, an increased interest in what lifestyle changes can help to prevent this common disease. Prostate cancer mortality rates vary by location but are strongly associated with fat and diet-related factors.
A long list of diets has been associated with Prostate cancer development including fat, certain acids, soy, calcium, various vegetables, lycopene and Vitamins E, selenium, vitamin C and zinc. It was an analysis of data from the Health Professionals Follow Up (HPFU) study that first revealed the potential association between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk. Not surprisingly, this has led to a greater interest in the recommendation of lycopene containing grocery stores as a standard part of a healthy diet.
There were 2 basic study designs, one based on dietary intake and those based on plasma or serum lycopene measures. Nutrition studies were re-administered (case control), in which pre-meal recall of men with Prostate cancer compared with a control or non-Prostate cancer comparison group, or cohort, in the diet was assessed in men without cancer and followed by prostate cancer detection. of another. Dietary studies may be based on either tomato or tomato product or measure the absorption of lycopene based on a dietary supplement containing lycopene.
Eating Tomato products is also associated with a reduced risk of many other cancer sites, particularly lung and abdominal injuries. However, claiming the safe association of lycopene or tomato products is problematic, since these results are completely limited in diet-based case studies, and, in particular, it is not clear whether this benefit can be distinguished from the potential benefit of total fruits and vegetables. In addition, there are virtually no prospective studies or studies designed for serum. Therefore, while further research is warranted, it is premature to claim the unique benefits of tomato products, not to mention lycopene.
Lycopene is a member of the natural pigment group known as carotenoids. Carotenoids are synthesized by both plants and microorganisms and are widely found in the surrounding environment, providing, for example, many flower colors, fruits and vegetables. Animals cannot add carotenoids and rely on the absorption of their source of these molecules. In plants the main function of this family is to use it as a bright light color and protect the cells from photo-oxidative damage during the photosynthesis process. In humans, carotenoids have an edible role; primarily that of beta-carotene, which acts as a source of vitamins A. Until recently little emphasis was placed on the importance of lycopene as a diet. While beta-carotene is orange and responsible for carrots color, for example, lycopene gives red color to tomatoes and other fruits such as guava, watermelon, pink grapefruit and papaya. In Western countries 85% or more of the diet lycopene comes from tomato and tomato products.
So far, more than 600 carotenoids have been described and as a family that share some common aesthetic features. These include the anterior and posterior junctions attached to the polyisoprenoid structure. Lycopene itself is an acrylic and water-soluble carotenoid and is known to have 13 double bonds that are structured precisely. Lack of a beta ionone ring that leaves lycopene with no activity of provitamin A. Double-stranded compounds allow lycopene and in fact all carotenoids are able to isomerize and consequently many combinations of cis and trans isomers are possible. The most thermodynamically stable preparation is the all-absorbing preparation and is the lycopene isomer most commonly found in raw foods. However, cooking or other types of food preparation may induce isomerization leading to increased levels of cis-isomers, especially 5-cis.6 In biology, light absorption, manifestations of energy or chemical reactions are thought to be may result in isomeric interconversion.
It can be concluded that a moderate amount of whole-based supplementation of tomato soup, tomato puree, tomato paste, tomato juice or other tomato juice, consumed in dietary fat, such as olive oil or avocado, results in increased carotenoids of plasma, especially lycopene. The recommended daily intake of lycopene is 35 mg which can be obtained by eating two glasses of tomato juice or by combining tomato products. These foods may contain chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic agents. However, until further research establishes the important health benefits of single-lycopene care, in humans, the conclusion can be deduced that the use of naturally occurring fruits and vegetables, especially tomato-derived products containing lycopene, should be promoted, having a positive impact on health and disease.
It is possible that lycopene represents only a good marker of vegetarian and fruit intake and that people who consume large quantities of fruits and vegetables tend to be more health conscious and the antagonist can avoid high risk cancer behavior anyway. On the other hand, those health-conscious people have the opportunity to seek ‘cervical cancer screening’ and be diagnosed with the disease. It is also important to note that foods rich in lycopene are not linked to vegetarian diets, such as ketchup, pizza and tomato sauce and therefore may be viewed as an alternative to vegetarian diets. Further studies should use dietary questionnaire information and information on nutrients that directly affect lycopene.
Across all carotenoids, beta-carotene has been extensively investigated, particularly in relation to the decreased risk of smoking-related cancer. It is important to note, however, that two additional beta-carotene tests actually appear to lead to an increased risk of lung cancer. The results of this study serve to warn that fruits and vegetables contain a biologically active range and that selecting one of the dietary supplements should be a carefully made decision based on good scientific data.
Over the past several years, two lines of evidence have supported the role of lycopene in the prevention of certain malignant diseases, especially prostate cancer. First, the essential antioxidant properties of lycopene have been established. Second, numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that people with lycopene who take too much lycopene, especially tomato products, have lower risk of prostate cancer. However, the relationship between tomato or lycopene production and the risk of prostate cancer, during rehabilitation, remains controversial, since not all studies support it. Results from epidemiological studies will be summarized here, and the factors that may contribute to this unrelated appearance will be considered.